糖和肥胖

肥胖 has increased over time in Australia and New Zealand

The causes of obesity are complex, with many factors involved

Sugar intakes have decreased while obesity continues to increase

Having and keeping a healthy body weight is recognised in both the Australian Dietary GuidelinesEating and Activity Guidelines for New Zealand as crucial for good health and wellbeing.

The Body Mass Index or BMI is used to estimate your best weight for health. It is calculated by  dividing your weight (kg) by height in meters squared.

BMI范围:

18.小于等于5 =体重过轻
18.5 - 24.健康体重
25 - 29.99 =超重
30岁或以上=肥胖

Current evidence suggests people with a BMI of less than 18.5 or higher than 25 are more likely to die prematurely of a health-related issue than those with a BMI within the defined healthy weight range.

代谢综合征BMI is not a perfect measure. It cannot differentiate between muscle mass and body fat. It would therefore overestimate the body fat content of body builders and high performance sports people. It would also underestimate body fat in the elderly or people with a physical disability. 

肥胖趋势 

Overweight and obesity in Australia and New Zealand have increased over time.

  • 31.3% of Australian adults and 8.1% children were obese in 2017/18
  • 30.9% of New Zealand adults and 11.3% children were obese in 2018/19

Overweight and obesity have increased from 63.4% in 2014/15 to 67% in 2017/18, in Australia. There was a large increase for those aged 18-24 years in this time. 

In New Zealand, adult obesity increased since 2011/12 but not by a significant amount. Similarly for children, there has been no major change in this time. 

肥胖的原因

肥胖 increases the risk of many chronic conditions and diseases including insulin resistance, 糖尿病, 高血压, 心脏病, 中风, 某些癌症, 痛风和睡眠呼吸暂停.

肥胖 is complex 和re can be many causes. These include eating more kilojoules than your body uses, 不活动, 遗传学, conveniences linked to modern living, 和社会经济因素. 

对于许多, too much energy or kilojoules consumed from any source, 包括糖, 导致体重增加.

对于糖和肥胖, the research continues to show no direct causal relationship, outside of the contribution to energy intake. Reducing sugar intake is shown to lead to weight loss (or a reduction in weight gain), if there is overall less energy consumed in the diet. 

sugarhealth营养'The data suggest that the change in body fatness that occurs with modifying intake of sugars results from an alteration in energy balance rather than a physiological or metabolic consequence of monosaccharides or disaccharides.' Te Morenga等人,2013年

Researchers have looked at obesity trends next to sugars intake over time. Over a 30 year period in Australia they found that added sugars and sugars in soft drinks has gone down, at the same time that obesity has increased. This suggests that something more than energy from sugars is at play.   

Attention is now turning to all foods and drinks that contribute too much energy to the diet. Cutting down on all sources of excess kilojoules (or energy) reflects an evidence based and sensible approach to avoid weight gain, in addition to getting enough physical activity.

' ...it may be time to rethink the approach of focusing on a single energy source in the diet when tackling childhood obesity.' 黄 & 2018年路易

欲知更多详情,请浏览Gpk电子游戏的 fact sheet on sugars and body weight here

 

参考文献

  • 卫生部. 肥胖统计.
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics.  4364.0.55.001 - Australian Health Survey: First Results, 2011-12
  • Te Morenga L, Mallard S & 曼J. (2012). Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ, 345: e7492
  • 汗助教 & Sievenpiper杰. (2016). Controversies about sugars: results from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on obesity, cardiometabolic disease and 糖尿病. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(Suppl 2):S25–S43
  • 巴克莱啊 & Brand-Miller J. (2011). The Australian 肥胖 Paradox: A substantial decline in sugars intake over the same time frame that overweight and obesity have increased. 营养,3 (4):491 - 504
  • Brand-Miller J & 巴克莱啊. (2017). Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention. Am J Clin Nutr, 105(4):854-863.
  • 黄吗, & 路易JCY. (2018). The direct and indirect effect associations of usual free sugar intake on BMI z-scores of Australian children and adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr, 72:1058–1060
  • 秋VL,哈V & Sievenpiper杰. (2015). Sugars and 肥胖: Is it the Sugars or the Calories? Nutrition Bulletin, 40(2):88-96

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