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强调积极的

Focussing on 积极的 messages is a good strategy for public health.

Public health nutrition evidence

有压倒性的证据表明,增加健康食品比减少不健康食品能带来更多的公共卫生收益. 的 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 发表在《Gpk电子游戏平台》杂志上的一项研究发现,大洋洲的三大全球饮食风险因素是:

  • 全谷物摄入量低
  • 少吃坚果和种子
  • 蔬菜摄入量低

这三个因素占死亡的50%和残疾调整生命年的66%.

在全球范围内, the largest shortfalls in consumption are for healthy foods such as nuts, 种子, 牛奶和全谷物. 所有15种饮食因素, more deaths were associated with not eating enough healthy foods such as wholegrains, 水果, nuts and 种子 than by diets with high levels of trans fats, sugary drinks and high levels of red and processed meats.

作者证实,提倡摄入充足的健康食品比只吃糖和脂肪更有效. 为了做到这一点,他们说饮食政策应该与粮食系统的多个部门合作,以生产为重点, distribution and consumption of healthy foods, and collaboration between a variety of actors in the food system. 任何变化都必须考虑到全球粮食系统对环境的影响,以避免不利影响. 的y say coordinated global efforts to improve diet are urgently needed.

的 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) assessed 2015年的饮食风险因素 and found similar results, with the top three dietary risk factors being:

  • Diet low in wholegrains and high fibre cereals (accounting for 1.6%的年数
  • 少吃水果(1.4%的年数
  • 少吃坚果和种子(1.3%的年数

A diet high in sugar sweetened beverages was number 11 on the list accounting for 0.2%的残疾.

澳大利亚没有国家营养政策,这将是确立国家优先事项的重要第一步. 新西兰开发了他们的 National Healthy Food and Drink Policy in 2016 and released a second edition in 2019.

Increasing wholegrains intake is important to achieve public health gain, so what can be done? 的 Danish Wholegrain Partnership (WGP) commenced in 2008 to encourage higher wholegrain intake. It’s a collaborative program between government, 非政府组织和工业已经实现了丹麦人口平均全麦摄入量的两倍, 现在是每天63克. 全谷物在澳大利亚的推广仅限于谷物和豆类营养委员会雇佣的一小群营养师的努力。GLNC), a health promotion charity funded by grain growers that receives no government funding.

Increasing intake of nuts and 种子 could also achieve significant health gain. 再一次, 这是树坚果产业(有一些政府拨款资助)通过一个小的营养师团队和有限的预算来促进坚果摄入量的增加. 的 坚果对生活 该项目正在教育健康专业人士和消费者每天一把坚果的健康益处.

的re is no national 水果 and 蔬菜etable promotion campaign, 西澳政府单独开展了“为2n 5而努力”活动,非政府组织“营养澳大利亚”(Nutrition Australia)利用专业营养师和有限的资源开展了“努力5”活动. 最近,水果, 蔬菜, 蘑菇和坚果行业通过Hort Innovation发起了“好心情食品”活动,在2019冠状病毒病疫情导致酒店业低迷的情况下,这一活动旨在提振国民精神,增加消费销售. 振奋人心的消息, a 水果 and 蔬菜etable consortium was announced in May bringing together key players to coordinate a national approach to promote consumption. It is made up of 11 members including Nutrition Australia, AUSVEG, 的 Cancer Council Victoria and various government bodies. And continuing with the positivity theme, 该集团打算创造性地寻找食用新鲜农产品的美味方法,以及购买和储存的实用技巧. 的y also intend to address cost, 可用性和供应, including government subsidies to boost access and affordability; Literally using a carrot, 不是一个棍子.

消费者研究

In their article on overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance, 韦伯和Byrd-Bredbenner 哀叹自1980年发布第一个美国饮食指南以来,他们在遵守美国饮食指南方面缺乏变化. 的y conclude that for guidance to be effective it must be realistic. 必须认识到,口味和方便是选择食物的最大决定因素(尽管关于食物和健康的信息很多)。. 的ir conclusions about how to communicate with consumers focus on making messages realistic, 积极的, easy to understand and actionable without having to give up favourite foods.

健康之星评级(HSR)是包装食品包装正面标签(FOPL)的一个简单和积极方法的例子. 选择更多的明星,选择更健康的选择,这一前提已经被消费者所接受,也被行业所接受. 的 HSR five-year review found most consumers found it easy to understand and use. An Australian study evaluating different FOPL labels with consumers found HSR was perceived to be the best, and a more negative label with a warning statement was not rated as highly

国际食品信息委员会(IFIC)与一组营养专家和消费者研究人员一起预测了未来一年的食品趋势. In January this year (2020) they identified five broad trends for food and nutrition, including ‘Intuitive eating and the Un-Diet’. 这一趋势预示着时尚饮食和严格的养生法将会输给更全面、更可持续的改变. 好的食物和坏的食物的二分法将会被丢弃在根据自然线索进食和发展对食物的更健康态度的道路上, especially in the 49% of Millennials familiar with mindful and intuitive eating. 的 wise old tenets of balance and moderation have not gone out of style. 消费者已经厌倦了减肥信息,转向了“健康饮食”,即使建议是相同的, 关键在于包装.

健康心理学

关于减少肥胖策略的公共健康信息往往是负面的,这一直存在争议, particularly among dietitians and nutritionists working in disordered eating. Gpk电子游戏的饮食文化中包含了限制性饮食这可能会对那些有饮食失调风险的人产生不良后果. Is an increase in disordered eating collateral damage of the anti-obesity juggernaut? 最近的一次 系统综述 on this question found anti-obesity messages stigmatise large people and reinforce thin ideals. Messages promoting smaller meals were found to be potential triggers for disordered eating. 的 authors found more research is needed to determine longer term impact.

国家饮食失调协作组织(NEDC)推荐了几个目标来预防社区的饮食失调. 的 first is improving general health, nutrition and psychological wellbeing, such as self-esteem and 积极的 body image. 和孩子们, promoting the adoption of healthy balanced attitudes on body image, 饮食和体重, and psychoeducation on balanced nutrition and physical activity. It may be argued that a negative, 对自由裁量食品采取惩罚性措施不符合预防性社会文化环境的标准, 相反,它强化了一种节食心态,这可能会导致弱势群体的饮食失调.

而防止肥胖的食物环境可能被视为不同于防止饮食失调的食物环境, 索纳维尔和罗杰斯 表明双方存在共同点. 的y say food policies that emphasise health should be paramount. Food industry could assist by reducing hyper-palatable nutrient-poor processed foods, 避免过大的分量和“节食”食物,因为它们会鼓励人们关注体重和形状, 饮食限制, 暴食行为, 和渴望.

然而, there are points of contention between obesity prevention and eating disorder prevention efforts. 首先, 卫生当局将体重(和肥胖)作为人口健康状况的主要指标,这进一步使体型较大的人蒙上了污名,忽视了整体健康的方法. 其次, 预防肥胖的政策往往把重点放在妖魔化特定的“坏”食物上,比如加糖饮料和快餐,这与节制和相信内心饥饿的原则是不一致的, 味觉和饱腹感. 经常, obesity prevention advocates say there are bad foods, whereas eating disorders prevention advocates say there aren’t any “good” or “bad foods”. 争论仍在继续.

结论

Looking at the public health nutrition evidence, 消费者的心态和情绪, and health psychology principles, 提倡积极的营养信息——多吃什么食物——似乎是一种谨慎的做法,以提高人们的饮食模式. 食物和营养信息侧重于活力和健康的目标,而不是体重,支持更好的心理健康结果.

 

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